EndodonticS – Vol. 1

VOLUME I

 

CHAPTER 1 – A BRIEF HISTORY OF ENDODONTICS
CHAPTER 2 –
EMBRYOLOGY
Crown formation

Root formation

Single- and multiple-root formation

The formation of lateral canals

Exposed dentin and enamel pearls

Function and fate of dental lamina

CHAPTER 3DEFINITION, SCOPE, AND INDICATIONS FOR ENDODONTIC THERAPY
Basic phases of endodontic therapy

Indications and contraindications

True contraindications

False contraindications

True indications

Strategic endodontics

CHAPTER 4 – DIAGNOSIS IN ENDODONTICS

Subjective information

Medical history

Dental history

Objective information

Examination

Percussion

Palpation

Radiographic examination

Thermal tests

Electric pulp test

Cavity test

Anesthesia test

Transillumination

Bite test

CHAPTER 5 – ENDODONTIC RADIOGRAPHY

Basic principles of radiology

Principles of x-ray formation

The quality of the radiograph

Factors controlling the x-ray beam

Kilovoltage

Exposure time

Milliamperage

Filter

Collimator

Target-object distance

Basic principles of image formation

Image sharpness

Image magnification

Image distortion

Intraoral radiographic techniques

Bisecting angle technique

Paralleling technique

Spatial localization: buccal object rule

Radiographic orientation

Endoral radiographic examinations

  1. A) Preoperative or diagnostic radiographs

Upper incisors
Upper canine
Upper premolars
Upper molars
Lower incisors
Lower canine
Lower premolars

Lower molars

  1. B) Intraoperative radiographs

Upper incisors and canines

Upper premolars

Upper molars

Lower incisors and canines

Lower premolars

Lower molars

Common causes of errors

1) Light radiographs

2) Dark radiographs

3) Radiographs with poor contrast

4) Dark stains

5) Light stains

6) Yellow or brown stains

7) Blurry radiographs

8) Radiographs with partial images

Protection of the patient, dentist, and auxiliary personnel

Bibliography

CHAPTER 6 – DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY SYSTEMS (DRS)

Origins and technological evolution

Features of the DRS image

Reading and processing of DRS images

Quality of DRS images

Hardware

Acquisition Sensors

Software

Execution and processing time

Supplied dosage

Adaptation and repetitiveness

Filing

Large formats

 

CHAPTER 7 – PULPAL PATHOLOGY

The reparative capacity of pulp tissue

Pulpal diseases

Clinical classification

Healthy pulp

Hyperemia

Clinical symptoms

Diagnosis
Therapy

Pulpitis

Symptomatology

Diagnosis

Pulp tests

Radiographic examination

Therapy

Necrosis

Symptomatology

Radiographic examination

Pulp tests

Therapy

Vital pulp therapy

Pulp capping with MTA

Operative sequence for pulp capping

CHAPTER 8 – PERIAPICAL DISEASE

The reparative capacity of periapical tissues

Classification of the lesionsof encloclontic origin

Chronic apical periodontitis

Granuloma and cyst
Granuloma

Cysts

Reactivation of chronic apical periodontitis

Acute apical periodontitis

Acute alveolar abscess

The Cracked-Tooth Syndrome

Introduction

Definition

Cracked tooth syndrome

Etiology

Symptoms

Clinical findings

Diagnosis

Classification

Treatment

Class I

Class II

Class III

Class IV

Conclusion

CHAPTER 9 – USE OF ANESTHESIA IN ENDODONTICS

Topical anesthesia

Local infiltration

Regional anesthesia or nerve blocks

Inferior alveolar nerve block

Indirect technique
Direct technique

Mental nerve block

Nasopalatine nerve block

Anterior palatine nerve block

Supplemental anesthetic techniques

Anesthetic solutions and inflammation

Lingual infiltration

Intraseptal injection

Intraligamental infiltration

Intrapulpal infiltration

Intraosseous anesthesia

The intraosseous technique

Step 1: anesthetize the attached gingiva
Step 2: Cortical plate perforation
Step 3: Injecting into the cancellous bone

Dosage reccomendations

Duration of anesthesia

Considerations for intraosseous anesthesia

Anatomical considerations

Patient considerations

Other considerations

CHAPTER 10 – TOOTH ISOLATION: THE RUBBER DAM

Instruments

1) Rubber dam

2) Rubber dam punches

3) Rubber dam clamps

4) Rubber dam clamp forceps

5) Rubber clam frame

6) Lubricant

7) Rubber dam napkins

8) Dental floss

9) Assistant

Positioning of the dam

CHAPTER 11 – ACCESS CAVITY AND ENDODONTIC ANATOMY

Requirements of the access cavity

Rules for the preparation of an adequate access cavity

General principles for the preparation of the access cavity

Penetration phase

Enlargement phase

Finishing and flaring phase

Upper central incisor

Upper lateral incisor

Upper canine

Upper first premolar

Upper second premolar

Upper first molar

Upper second molar

Upper third molar

Lower central incisor

Lower lateral incisor

Lower canine

Lower first premolar

Lower second premolar

Lower first molar

Lower second molar

Lower third molar

The access cavity in prosthetically prepared teeth

The access cavity through prosthetic crowns

Common errors in the preparation of the access cavity

Errors related to inadequate preparation

Errors related to over-aggressive preparation

CHAPTER 12 – TREATMENT: PREPARATION TECHNIQUES FOR ENDODONTIC THERAPHY
Introduction

Pretreatment

Modern indications forendodontic pre-treatment

Classification

Periodontal pretreatment

Gingivectomy-gingivoplasty

The apically repositioned flap

Prosthetic restorative pretreatment

Hollow posts

Conservative restorative pretreatment

Reconstruction of the fourth wall

Copper and orthodontic bands

Amalgam anchored with posts or amalgam pins

 

Pre-endodontic composite

Orthodontic pretreatment

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